That’s despite growing concerns about environmental degradation, electricity oversupply, and air pollution. Coal is widely considered the dirtiest fossil fuel for electricity generation, with the highest greenhouse gas emissions, and widespread air, water, and soil quality issues due to mining, burning, and coal waste. “It’s definitely true that China is the main investor for coal in Southeast Asia,” said Isabella Suarez, a Philippines-based analyst for the Center for Research on Energy and Clean Air (CREA). “If you look at overseas investment portfolio for Chinese coal, Indonesia and Vietnam are second- and third-highest in the world.”
Coal accounts for 56 percent of electricity generation in Indonesia, 34.3 percent in Vietnam and 29.3 percent in Cambodia.