The Chinese government sees Taiwan as a breakaway province that will, eventually, be part of the country. But many Taiwanese people consider their self-ruled island - with its own form of government and a democratic system - to be distinct. This election also involves a referendum to lower the voting age to 18. Currently, only people above the age of 20 can vote. But more and more younger people appear to be becoming politically conscious, with turnout at the 2020 vote being the highest ever.
Young people have told the BBC they're directly being driven by the "China threat" - an issue that has been a big part of the political conversation throughout their lives.