Chinese President Xi Jinping’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is facing strong criticism abroad. US Vice President Mike Pence accused China of using ‘so-called “debt diplomacy” to expand its influence’. Former German foreign minister Sigmar Gabriel said China was using the BRI to ‘promote a value system different from the West’. India declares that the initiative harms its sovereignty. Others attack the BRI for not meeting ‘international standards’ on environmental and social sustainability, procurement, anti-corruption and transparency, pricing and debt sustainability.